Unit dimensions of length, mass, and time describe the mechanical and gravitational properties of elementary particles and fields. In a universe constructed from these unit dimensions, it should come as no surprise that the electromagnetic interaction can also be described in units of meter-kilogram-second (MKS).

The principal means of quantifying electromagnetism is the maximum charge potential–the Planck charge. In MKS units, the Planck charge is equal to the Planck time.

Deeper reflection on the use of time in mechanical and gravitational formulas shows that time is a natural way of quantifying a change in inertial mass (force) and velocity (acceleration). Time plays the same role in the mechanical dynamics induced by electromagnetism under the label of electric charge.

Substituting Planck time for Planck charge produces consistent quantities *and* dimensions in formula after formula. Furthermore, the proportionality of electromagnetic potentials given in MKS units are equivalent across the fundamental unit dimensions–just as the New Foundations Model demonstrates for quantum mechanical and gravitational phenomena.

Substituting Planck time for Planck charge produces a coherent set of electromagnetic units, constants, and formulas in MKS units. This translation gives new meaning to historical constants whose values and dimensions are ambiguous. It shows, for example, that the Planck force is the maximum unit potential embedded in the electric constant, magnetic constant, and Einstein gravitational constant.

The relationship between Planck charge and Planck time can also be derived from the broader system of Planck units encompassing electromagnetism.

## Electromagnetic unit conversion

Calculating electromagnetism in MKS units requires a conversion from electric charge into time. The following conversion factor translates units of coulomb into seconds.

EM unit | Symbol | Conversion | MKS units |
---|---|---|---|

coulomb | C | 2.874 495 x 10^{-26} | s |

Full table of electromagnetic unit conversions